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Korean only variants

Human personality (i.e., temperament and character) is a complex trait related to mental health, influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Despite the efforts performed during the past decades, its genetic background is only just beginning to be identified.

Judging from the clear data Fact_1, Korean may be "insane". But ridicule aside, the below list is a part of SNV-1 list, which inherent to Korean by the following population genetics paper.

Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population
Wenqian Zhang et al.
Published: 21 October 2014 in BMC Bioinformatics
additional_file_7 xlsx

SNV=single nucleotide variant

Abbreviations in the above paper is as follows.
 
KPGP=Korean Personal Genomes Project
1KGP=1000 Genome Project
SNV-1=SNVs detected in at least one of the 35 Korean individuals but not included in either HapMap or 1KGP
SNV-35=SNVs detected in all of 35 Korean individuals but not included in either HapMap or 1KGP
SNV-1/ns= non-synonymous SNV from SNV-1
SNV-35/ns=non-synonymous SNV from SNV-35

Please keep in your mind that the above paper was written by FDA(U.S. Food and Drug Administration) in fact, denying the fact in formal.

The above paper didn't submit to Nature or Science etc famous journal of science, but this paper was presented at a academic conference held in Oakland, USA in March 2014.

Authors of the above paper are as follows, and all authors, except Heng Luo was researcher or programming engineer in FDA.
(When the above paper released, Heng Luo was a graduate student at the University of Arkansas, but researcher in FDA at present)

Wenqian Zhang(FDA)
Joe Meehan(FDA, Ph.D.)
Zhenqiang Su(FDA)
Hui Wen Ng(FDA)
Mao Shu(FDA)
Heng Luo(graduate student )
Weigong Ge(FDA)
Roger Perkins
Weida Tong(FDA, Ph.D.)
Huixiao Hong(FDA, Ph.D.)

[cited from the above population genetics paper]
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Food and Drugs Administration, the National Center for Research Resources or the National Institutes of Health.

Disclosure
The findings and conclusions in this article have not been formally disseminated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and should not be construed to represent the FDA determination or policy.

Declarations
Publication costs of this article were funded by the US government.

Abbreviations
SCZ=schizophrenia,
ASD=Autism spectrum disorder,
ADHD=attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
BPD= bipolar disorder,
MDD=major depressive disorder,
OCD=Obsessive-compulsive disorder,
Alz=Alzheimer,

Education=educational attainment,
gF=general cognitive function
all= Intelligence




1. Please don't misunderstand that the list below is all correct, because other papers may shows another or opposite result. In the event that you know the paper which deny the results, please inform me

2. Please ponder the list below which indicate anomalous results, and if you are Korean and have a quibble of the list below, inform me with evidence or papers name without slander. To my regret, genetics papers below show "insane Korean".
>
GeneName
Disease gene candidates
# of SNV-1 # of SNV-1/ns Mental disoreder
Mental traits
neuropsychiatric diseases
PRIM2 5033 10 Insomnia
paper[86]
CSMD1 1786 1 SCZ
paper[9],paper[52]
snoU13 17311 MDD, Insomnia
paper[43]
PDE4DIP 1374 14 brain,paper[4]
MDD,paper[91]
RBFOX1 1272 0 all
paper[5]
PTPRN2 12242 MDD
paper[6]
KMT2C 1091 3 BPD
paper[7]
PTPRD 10841 OCD
paper[8]
LINC00842 10081 0
CNTNAP2 940 2 SCZ
paper[10]
ROBO2 932 1SCZ and MDD
paper [13]
ZNF717 859 28 intellectual disability, paper[14]
complex neuropsychiatric syndromes, paper[93]
brain,paper[94] ,
CROCC 844 5 Rett syndrome
paper[39]
AF146191.4 8002 0
LSAMP 8000 pathoaetiology of suicidal behaviour
paper[15]
WWOX 7970 mental retardation
paper[81]
DLG2 7890 SCZ
paper[5]
GUSBP1 7601 0
EYS 7592 SCZ
paper[5]
ANKRD30BL 7303 0
MACROD2 6932 BPD
paper[5]
DPP6 681 0 neurodevelopmental disorders
paper[89]
LRP1B 6772 gF
paper[5]
TPTE 664 9 0
ANKRD36C 653 23 0
PCDH15 645 5 SCZ,ASD
paper[82]
FHIT 6420 SCZ
paper[5]
LINC00969 6406 paper[57]
SCZ
KCNJ12 626 16 paper[58]
Smith-Magenis syndrome
BAGE2 618 3 0
UPK3B 608 1 0
CTNNA3 6050 ASD
paper[79]
NRXN3 6021 neuropsychiatric disorders
paper[80]
CDH13 6000 ASD, SCZ, BD, MDD, ADHD
paper[16],paper[64]
SGCZ 5820 depressive temperament
paper[73]
CNTN5 568 2 suicidality
paper[74]
PARK2 5681 human personality
paper[75]
MAP2K3 564 5 mental disorders
paper[76]
CCSER1 5642 Alcoholism in European-American
paper[77]
AC007682.1 5621 0
GRID2 561 1 mental and physical stress
paper[78]
CTNNA2 5530 Education
paper[5]
DAB1 5280 mental retardation
paper[44]
GPC5 5271 cognitive development
paper[45]
NAALADL2 5190 ASD
paper[46]
MAGI2 5061 SCZ,MDD[paper[47],
human personality[paper[75]
DPP10 5050 ADHD
paper[48]
PDE4D 50314 obsessive-compulsive disorder
paper[49]
KCNIP4 4970 personality disorders,ADHD
paper[50]
CNTN4 4851 SCZ
paper[40]
TBC1D5 478 0 paper[51]
BD
AGBL4 4742 paper[52]
cognitive abilities
ASIC2 4710 paper[52]
SCZ
CADM2 4711 all(mental disorders) paper[38]
cognitive functions and educational attainment
paper[88]
CDH12 4690 SCZ,BPD,MDD
paper[24]
ZDHHC11 4684 0
ADARB2 468 0 paper[53]
ASD
DCC 4672 gF
paper[5]
GALNTL6 459 0 0
ANKRD36 45823 alcohol dependence
paper[54]
CDH4 4570 SCZ
paper[25]
PRR4 4571 SCZ
paper[55]
LRRC4C 4480 Anorexia
paper[5]
MIR4435-1HG 4450 0
LINC00960 4434 SCZ
paper[56]
SLC9B1P4 4421 0
PTPRT 4340 intellectually disabling
paper[58]
SDK1 4312 mental(childhood abuse)
paper[59]
PARD3B 4302 mental disorder
paper[60]
SLC9B1P1 425 16 0
TAS2R14 421 0 0
RUNX1 4202 Mental Retardation
paper[61]
AUTS2 4200 SCZ,ASD
paper[42],[53]
CSMD3 4181 ASD
paper[62]
NRXN1 4181 ASD,SCZ
paper[35], paper[95]
LINC00955 4187 0
ZNF385D 4180 SCZ
paper[63]
PRKG1 417 0 ADHD
paper[64]
CAMTA1 4160 human episodic memory performance
paper[65]
SPAG16 4143 BPD
paper[66]
TMEM132D 4100 panic disorder
paper[67]
ROBO1 4091 language and mathematics abilities
paper[68]
GPC6 4080 autistic traits
paper[69]
NBPF1 407 14 brain size
paper[92]
LRRTM4 4061 Tourette Syndrome, Autism and ADHD
paper[70]
NOTCH2NL 4052 brain size
paper[71]
NCOR1P2 4021 0(Blood Pressure)
TTC34 4003 0
NKAIN2 3981 SCZ
paper[72]
SMYD3 3970 paper[41]
mental retardation
RPTOR 3950 SCZ
paper[40]
AC090044.1 3940 0
OPCML 3902 SCZ
paper[37]
SNX29 3900 Education
paper[5],
ASD
paper[26]
NRG1 388 0 ADHD
paper[2]
SCZ
paper[11]paper[87]
ERBB4 3870 SCZ
paper[36]
ERC2 3860 ASD,SCZ
paper[35]
NTM 3850 intelligence quotient (IQ)
paper[34]
SRGAP2B 3830 brain development and evolution
(synaptic density throughout adulthood)
paper[83]
SLC9B1P3 3833 0
CNTNAP3B 3797 0
GRM7 379 2 BPD
paper[33]
CACNA2D3 3790 SCZ
paper[32]
MIR663A 3760 0
SNTG1 3760 Alz
paper[84]
SUMF1 3740 mental retardation
paper[31]
SORCS2 3734 BPD,SCZ,ADHD
paper[30]
DMD 3732 0
HYDIN 3722 brain size(microcephaly and macrocephaly)
paper[85]
DGKB 3721 cognition
paper[29]
NRG3 3710 SCZ
paper[28]
FAM182B 36913 0
TEKT4P2 3680 0
DIP2C 3672 mental disease
paper[27]
AGBL1 3660 ASD
paper[26]
CDH18 3640 SCZ,BPD,MDD
paper[24]
HERC2P3 3640 ADHD
paper[23]
FRG2C 36324 ADHD
paper[23]
TRPM3 3590 intellectual disability
paper[22]
TRAPPC9 3580 Mental Retardation
paper[21]
ERICH1-AS1 3570 SCZ
paper[5]
DLGAP1 3550 SCZ
paper[20]
HDAC9 354 0 SCZ
paper[19]
CTNND2 3541 mild intellectual disability
paper[18]
CACNA1C 3021 SCZ
paper[95]
CACNA1B 220(# of SNV-35=26)1 SCZ
paper[96]
OR4C5 15521 SCZ
paper[90]

1.it is beyond all doubts that a great majority of SNV-1 over 350 have relation to mental deseases, personality disorders and human personality, and in other words, Korean are completely differs from to The Chinese and The Japanese in mental traits, despite of geographic proximity.

2.Needless to say, It is important not to forget that papers of genetic pathology include a lot of controversial and disputable results in many cases, So please remember the presumption that the results presented in the above papers are not necessarily correct. It is therefore essential that multiple papers indicate a genetic association between mental disease and gene.

3.There are no winners of all sixty-three international scientific prizes in South Korea, despite of high education revel ratio and large population size (detailed data is here), and this fact completely coincides with the above list.

PRIM2 and snoU13 gene

It is certain that insomnia which related to major depressive disorder spread over South Korea, and korean type's insomnia would be caused by PRIM2 and snoU13 gene.

South Korea: Why so many struggle to sleep from BBC
South Korea is one of the most sleep deprived nations on earth. It also has the highest suicide rate among developed nations, the highest consumption of hard liquor and a huge number of people on antidepressants.

In Seoul, whole department stores are devoted to sleep products, from the perfect sheets to the optimum pillow, while pharmacies offer shelves full of herbal sleep remedies and tonics. And then there are the tech approaches to insomnia.


CSMD1,CNTNAP2,OR4C5 and others

CSMD1 gene
# of SNVs in SNV-1=1786
# of nsSNVs in SNV-1=1
# of SNVs in SNV-35=1
# of SNVs in nsSNV-35=0

OR4C5 gene
# of SNVs in SNV-1=155
# of nsSNVs in SNV-1=21
# of SNVs in SNV-35=49
# of SNVs in nsSNV-35=11
from additional_file_7 xlsx

1.There are abundant evidence in the above papers, and there can be no dispute about the facts that Korean type schizophrenia is in Korean. However, to my knowledge, there are no papers which indicate symptoms peculiar to Korean of schizophrenia.

2.Please don't misunderstand that the prevalence rates of schizophrenia are high among Korean compared with other ethnic populations, it is rather the opposite. Schizophrenia prevalence rates of Korean are low as well as The Japanese and The Chinese compared with White and Blacks.

Characteristics of Korean-Americans With Schizophrenia: A Cross-Ethnic Comparison With African-Americans, Latinos, and Euro-Americans
Sung-Woo Bae and John S. Brekke
Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2002

[cited]
Data on 223 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia who were Korean-American (« = 40), Euro-American (« = 95), African-American (n = 60), and Latino (n = 28) were gathered in face-to-face interviews. All of the subjects were engaged in outpatient treatment. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, the main findings were as follows: (1) while the Korean-Americans were the least acculturated, their symptom levels and clinical status were highly comparable with those of the other ethnic groups; (2) based on living situation, family contact, social functioning, activities of daily living, and vocational data, the Korean-Americans showed a stronger familial orientation, lower social initiation, and higher affiliative qualities than other groups; (3) the Korean-American sample had comparable levels of self-esteem but reported lower satisfaction with life than the other ethnic groups. Minority status did not confound these findings. It is concluded that the psychosocial profile of the Korean-Americans was strongly influenced by their traditional and collectivistic cultural orientation.


PDE4DIP and ZNF717 gene

These gene might be the crucial gene which determines the personality(i.e., temperament and character) of Korean.

PDE4DIP gene
# of SNVs in SNV-1=1374
# of nsSNVs in SNV-1=138
# of SNVs in SNV-35=14
# of SNVs in nsSNV-35=3


ZNF717 gene
# of SNVs in SNV-1=856
# of nsSNVs in SNV-1=28
# of SNVs in SNV-35=3
# of SNVs in nsSNV-35=0
from additional_file_7 xlsx

Extensive genomic and transcriptional diversity identified through massively parallel DNA and RNA sequencing of eighteen Korean individuals
Young Seok Ju et al.
Nature Genetics VOLUME 43 | NUMBER 8 | AUGUST 2011

[cited]
A subset of the nsSNPs showed remarkably high allele frequencies among Korean studied compared to other populations, including Europeans and west Africans represented in the HapMap project.



We found a subset of genes to be highly enriched for nsSNPs, here called super nsSNP genes (Supplementary Table 8 and Supplementary Note). For example, ZNF717 and CDC27 showed ~100 times increased density of nsSNPs compared to other genes (Table 2).

paper[4]
Association between SNPs and gene expression in multiple regions of the human brain
S Kim et al,
Nature Published: 08 May 2012

[cited]
We identified cis associations between 648 transcripts and 6725 SNPs in the various brain regions. Several SNPs showed brain regional-specific associations. The expression level of only one gene, PDE4DIP, was associated with a SNP, rs12124527, in all the brain regions tested here.

In this study, we conducted an eQTL analysis of 315 440 transcripts in 5 different brain regions from two different tissue collections and identified cis associations between 648 transcripts and 6725 SNPs. The expression of one gene, PDE4DIP, was associated with one SNP, rs12124527, in all brain regions examined.




Genome-wide association meta-analysis in 269,867 individuals identifies new genetic and functional links to intelligence
Jeanne E Savage et al.
Published online 2018 Nature genetics

To my knowledge, the above paper is the most comprehensive paper of genes related to intelligence and Supplementary Materials include a gene list of intelligence.

result of compared with the above paper and SNV-1(=Korean only variants)

compare.xlsx
ratio of SNV-1 in intelligence related gene list
compare2.xlsx
ratio of SNV-1/ns in intelligence related gene list
compare2.xlsx
validation of SNV-1 ratio

Surprisingly, almost all SNV-1 are associated with intelligence, concretely speaking, 496 genes(97.8%) of 507 genes associated with intelligence specified by the above paper are SNV-1.
(SNV-1=Korean only variants=SNVs detected in at least one of the 35 Korean individuals but not included in either HapMap or 1KGP)

The fact that there are no winners of all sixty-three international scientific prizes in South Korea and the above facts completely coincide, and Korean are very unique or anomalous in intelligence. Maybe, you would think that intelligence of Korean not at all different to intelligence of The Chinese and The Japanese. However, there is no doubt that genetics papers clearly indicate that Korean are completely different to The Chinese and The Japanese in intelligence.

Why such a strange phenomena occur in spite of geographic proximity? As a matter of fact, bottleneck effect in the 13th century at Korean Peninsula occurred by Genghis Khan and the son's invasion.
I infer that the population of the Korean Peninsula declined by 85% to 90% in the 13th century.(Please read this article, using machine translation tools. Chinese researchers estimate that the population of neighboring Liaoning Province, China, also declined by 90% during the same period.)

Maybe, the following phrase shall spread over the world within next three decades.

You are insane like Korean.




paper[1]
Rare coding variants in 10 genes confer substantial risk for schizophrenia.
Singh TJ et al.
Nature. April 6, 2022

paper[2]
an intriguing therapeutic target for neurodevelopmental disorders
Liang Shi & Clare M. Bergson
Nature Published: 16 June 2020

paper[3]
An interaction network of mental disorder proteins in neural stem cells
M J Moen et al,
Nature Published: 04 April 2017

paper[4]
Association between SNPs and gene expression in multiple regions of the human brain
S Kim et al,
Nature Published: 08 May 2012

paper[5]
Identification of pleiotropy at the gene level between psychiatric disorders and related traits
Tatiana Polushina et al,
Nature Published: 29 July 2021

[cited from the above paper]
Here, we aimed to identify genetic overlaps at the gene level between 7 mental disorders (schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anorexia nervosa, ADHD, bipolar disorder and anxiety), 8 brain morphometric traits, 2 cognitive traits (educational attainment and general cognitive function) and 9 personality traits (subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness, children’s aggressive behaviour, loneliness) based on publicly available GWASs.

paper[6]
A Genomewide Linkage Scan of Cocaine Dependence and Major Depressive Episode in Two Populations
Bao-Zhu Yang et ai.
Nature Published: 17 August 2011

paper[7]
Exome sequencing for bipolar disorder points to roles of de novo loss-of-function and protein-altering mutations
M Kataoka et al.
Nature Published: 24 May 2016

paper[8]
Genome-wide association study in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCGAS
M Mattheisen
Nature Published: 13 May 2014

paper[9]
The Schizophrenia-Associated Gene, CSMD1,Encodes a Brain-Specific Complement Inhibitor
Matthew L Baum
Harvard Libraly

paper[10]
CNTNAP2 gene dosage variation is associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy
J I Friedman et al.
Nature Published: 24 July 2007

paper[11]
The molecular genetics of schizophrenia: new findings promise new insights M J Owen et al.
Nature Published: 28 October 2003

paper[12]
A genome-wide investigation into parent-of-origin effects in autism spectrum disorder identifies previously associated genes including SHANK3
Siobhan Connolly et al.
Nature Published: 23 November 2016


paper[13]
Convergence of evidence from a methylome-wide CpG-SNP association study and GWAS of major depressive disorder
Karolina A. Aberg et al.
Nature Published: 22 August 2018

[cited from the above paper]
ROBO2 (roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2) is critical for the maintenance of inhibitory synapses in the adult ventral tegmental area, a brain region important for the production of dopamine[41], and has been implicated in schizophrenia[42],[43],[44] and bipolar depression[45].

paper[14]
Identification of 11 potentially relevant gene mutations involved in growth retardation, intellectual disability, joint contracture, and hepatopathy
Hongyan Diao et al.
Published online 2018 Nov 16

paper[15]
Association of limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) to male completed suicide
Anne Must et al.
Published: 23 April 2008

[cited from above paper]
According to the results of the current study, there might be a chance that variations in LSAMP gene play a role in pathoaetiology of suicidal behaviour.

paper[16]
The role of cadherin genes in five major psychiatric disorders: A literature update
Ziarih Hawi et al.
published: 18 September 2017

paper[17] Chromosome aberrations involving 10q22: report of three overlapping interstitial deletions and a balanced translocation disrupting C10orf11
Andreas Tzschach et al.
Nature Published: 21 October 2009

paper[18]
CTNND2— a candidate gene for reading problems and mild intellectual disability
Wolfgang Hofmeister et al.
February 3, 2015

paper[19]
HDAC9 is implicated in schizophrenia and expressed specifically in post-mitotic neurons but not in adult neural stem cells
Bing Lang et al.
Published online 2011 Aug 18.

paper[20]
Genetic analysis of the DLGAP1 gene as a candidate gene for schizophrenia
Jun-Ming Liet al
30 January 2013

paper[21]
Identification of Mutations in TRAPPC9, which Encodes the NIK- and IKK-β-Binding Protein, in Nonsyndromic Autosomal-Recessive Mental Retardation
Asif Mir et al.
11 December 2009

paper[22]
Disease-associated mutations in the human TRPM3 render the channel overactive via two distinct mechanisms
Siyuan Zhao et al.
eLife 2020

paper[23]
De novo and inherited CNVs in MZ twin pairs selected for discordance and concordance on Attention Problems
Erik A Ehli et al.
Nature Published: 11 April 2012

paper[24]
A novel relationship for schizophrenia, bipolar and major depressive disorder Part 5: a hint from chromosome 5 high density association screen
Xing Chen et al.
Published online 2017 May 15.


paper[25]
Neuronal cell adhesion genes Key players in risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other neurodevelopmental brain disorders?
Aiden P. Corvin
01 Oct 2010

paper[26]
Genome-wide association analysis of autism identified multiple loci that have been reported as strong signals for neuropsychiatric disorders
Lu Xia et al.
published: 24 October 2019

paper[27]
Integrated multi-omics reveal epigenomic disturbance of assisted reproductive technologies in human offspring
WeiChen et al.
Volume 61, November 2020

paper[28]
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) as a susceptibility gene in a schizophrenia subtype with florid delusions and relatively spared cognition
B Morar et al.
Nature
Published: 15 June 2010

paper[29]
Genetic Basis of a Cognitive Complexity Metric
Narell K. Hansell et al.
Published: April 10, 2015

[cited from the above paper] Abstract
Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ), reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787). Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG), followed by meta-analysis (N>6500) at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%), has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%), and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%). At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB), and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

paper[30]
SorCS2 is required for BDNF-dependent plasticity in the hippocampus
S Glerup el al.
Nature Published: 26 July 2016

paper[31]
Candidate genes for recessive non-syndromic mental retardation on chromosome 3p (MRT2A)*
JJ Higgins et al
published: 18 May 2004

paper[32]
Genetic Evaluation of Schizophrenia Using the Illumina HumanExome Chip
Tim Moons et al.
March 30, 2016

paper[33]
Allelic Association, DNA Resequencing and Copy Number Variation at the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor GRM7 Gene Locus in Bipolar Disorder
Radhika Kandaswamy et al.
Accepted: 14 April 2014

paper[34]
NTM and NR3C2 polymorphisms influencing intelligence: Family-based association studies
Yue Pan et al.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35 (2011) 154–160

paper[35]
CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 Are Mutated in Autosomal-Recessive Pitt-Hopkins-like Mental Retardation and Determine the Level of a Common Synaptic Protein in Drosophila
ChristianeZweier et al
13 November 2009,

paper[36]
Schizophrenia Candidate Gene ERBB4: Covert Routes of Vulnerability to Psychosis Detected at the Population Level
Nicholas C. Stefanis
March 2013

paper[37]
OPCML Gene as a Schizophrenia Susceptibility Locus in Thai Population
Benjaporn Panichareon
Published: 21 July 2011

paper[38]
Genetic variation in CADM2 as a link between psychological traits and obesity
Julia Morris et al
Nature Published: 14 May 2019

paper[39]
Investigation of modifier genes within copy number variations in Rett syndrome Rosangela Artuso et al Nature Published: 19 May 2011

paper[40]
Altered DNA methylation associated with a translocation linked to major mental illness
Daniel L. McCartney et al.
Nature Published: 19 March 2018

[cited from the above paper] Twenty-two of the DMRs identified were within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Fig. 3), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SZ through a large-scale GWAS.16 In addition, we identified DMRs within two additional genes (IGSF9B, CNTN4) that showed genome-wide association with SZ in the same study.
Two additional DMRs were identified within genes associated with SZ at the genome-wide significant level by the SZ Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC).16 These were within the genes IGSF9B and CNTN4, both of which function as cell adhesion molecules. Two large-scale epigenome-wide association studies of SZ have recently been reported.12,13 These studies reported significant differential methylation in RPTOR: a gene in which we identified a DMR. RPTOR is a key component of mTOR signalling, which has been implicated in synaptic plasticity.36

paper[41]
Derivative chromosome 1 and GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in a sibling pair
Dilek Aktas et al.
Published: 28 May 2010

paper[42]
Rare structural variants found in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are preferentially associated with neurodevelopmental genes
J Elia et al
Nature Published: 23 June 2009


paper[43]
GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Shared Genes and Biological Pathways between Major Depressive Disorder and Insomnia
Yi-Sian Lin
Published: 26 September 2021

paper[44]
The Gene Encoding Disabled-1 (DAB1), the Intracellular Adaptor of the Reelin Pathway, Reveals Unusual Complexity in Human and Mouse*
Isabelle Bar et al.
FEBRUARY 2003


paper[45]
Post-axial polydactyly type A2, overgrowth and autistic traits associated with a chromosome 13q31.3 microduplication encompassing miR-17-92 and GPC5
P.Kannu et al.
8, August 2013

paper[46]
Genome-Wide Association Study for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwanese Han Population
Po-Hsiu Kuo et al.
2015 Sep 23

paper[47]
Genetic Dissection of Temperament Personality Traits in Italian Isolates Maria Pina Concas et al. 21 December 2021

paper[48]
Attention, cognitive control and motivation in ADHD: Linking event-related brain potentials and DNA methylation patterns in boys at early school age
Hartmut Heinrich et al
. Published: 19 June 2017

paper[49]
Association study of the PDE4D gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population
Huang, Xing et al.
December 2019

paper[50]
KCNIP4 as a candidate gene for personality disorders and adult ADHD
LenaWeißflog et al. 2012.07.017

paper[51]
Implication of synapse-related genes in bipolar disorder by linkage and gene expression analyses
Catalina Lopez de Lara
2010 Jul 29

paper[52]
Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Monozygotic Twins
Anna Starnawskal et al
12 December 2017

paper[52]
Host genetics influences the relationship between the gut microbiome and psychiatric disorders
ThaisMartins-Silva
2 March 2021

paper[53]
Identification of a functional rare variant in autism using genome-wide screen for monoallelic expression
Eyal Ben-David et al
15 September 2011

paper[54]
Genome-wide association study for maximum number of alcohol drinks in European Americans and African Americans
Ke Xu et al
2015 Jun 3

paper[55]
Sex differences in schizophrenia: a longitudinal methylome analysis
Christopher Adanty et al
Published: 30 December 2021

paper[56]
Long non-coding RNA-associated competing endogenous RNA axes in the olfactory epithelium in schizophrenia: a bioinformatics analysis
Hani Sabaie et al.
Nature Published: 30 December 2021

paper[57]
Genome-Wide Search for SNP Interactions in GWAS Data: Algorithm, Feasibility, Replication Using Schizophrenia Datasets
Kwan-Yeung Lee et al.
Nature 28 August 2020

paper[58]
Modeling del(17)(p11.2p11.2) and dup(17)(p11.2p11.2) Contiguous Gene Syndromes by Chromosome Engineering in Mice: Phenotypic Consequences of Gene Dosage Imbalance
Katherina Walz 2003 May

paper[58]
Identification of pathogenic gene variants in small families with intellectually disabled siblings by exome sequencing
Janneke H M Schuurs-Hoeijmakers et al
February 13, 2014

paper[59]
Exposure to childhood abuse is associated with human sperm DNA methylation
Andrea L. Roberts et al.
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[cited from above paper] Suggestively significant findings in SNP-based tests for depressive temperament
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[cited]
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[cited from the above paper]
OR4C5 is a gene predicted by GDI to be highly damaging.

[notes]
# of SNVs in SNV-1/ns is 21.
"# of SNVs in SNV-35/ns" is 11.

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The following points are scientific facts of Korean DNA, indecating the uniquness of genetic structure.
1. Unusual high ratio of nonsynonymous variants compared with other population.
2.Strange distribution of minor allele of frequency and of Korean only variants.